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REVIEW ARTICLE
Transversus abdominis muscle release: Technique, indication, and results
Wolfgang Reinpold
October-December 2018, 1(3):79-86
DOI:10.4103/ijawhs.ijawhs_27_18  
Component separation technique (CST) allows the mobilization of large musculofascial flaps of the abdominal wall and was developed for the treatment of very large, primary and incisional abdominal wall hernias. The classic open anterior CST first published by Albanese and later by Ramirez is associated with high complication rates. According to a recent literature review, CST without mesh should no longer be performed because of high recurrence rates. Classic anterior CST is associated with high rates of surgical-site occurrences and infections and should only be performed as endoscopic- and perforator-sparing anterior CST. The unfavorable results of classic CST resulted in the development of numerous new anterior and posterior CST modifications, several of them were minimally invasive. The posterior CST with transversus abdominis muscle (TAM) release (TAR) published by Novitsky et al. is an extension of the original retrorectus Rives operation and Stoppa procedure. The technique avoids vast skin flaps and allows the closure of large abdominal wall defects and insertion of very large retromuscular alloplastic standard sublay meshes without damaging the vessels and intercostal nerves. The TAR procedure is one of the major advances of abdominal wall surgery of the last decades. Several new promising minimally invasive modifications including robotic-assisted TAR have been published recently. The indications and technique of the TAM (TAR) procedure and its minimally invasive modifications are described.
  36,944 3,174 12
REVIEW ARTICLES
Optimal management of mesh infection: Evidence and treatment options
Michael R Arnold, Angela M Kao, Korene K Gbozah, B Todd Heniford, Vedra A Augenstein
July-September 2018, 1(2):42-49
DOI:10.4103/ijawhs.ijawhs_16_18  
Mesh reinforcement is generally considered the standard of care in ventral hernia repair. Infection is a common complication following ventral hernia repair. Infection extending to the mesh is a complex problem. Knowledge of current treatment strategies is necessary for surgeons performing abdominal wall reconstruction. A comprehensive literature review was performed of current literature to assess risk factors and treatment options for mesh infection. Modifiable risk factors for mesh infections include active smoking, poorly controlled diabetes mellitus, abdominal skin or wound issues, and obesity. Operative factors that increase the risk of mesh infection include prior hernia repair, enterotomy and contamination of the surgical field. Of the synthetic meshes, lightweight polypropylene has the highest likelihood of salvage. Patients that are current smokers, those with other synthetic mesh types, and those infected with MRSA are rarely salvaged. Following excision of infected mesh, multi-staged abdominal wall reconstruction can be considered. Biologic or biosynthetic mesh is recommended when repairing incisional hernias following excision of infected mesh and likely represent the patient's best chance at a definitive hernia repair. Wound VAC-assisted delayed primary closure should be considered in higher-risk patients. Mesh infection is a complex complication that is commonly encountered by surgeons performing hernia repair. Prevention through patient optimization should be performed whenever appropriate. However, when patients develop a mesh infection, most will require complete mesh excision and recurrent hernia repair.
  28,790 2,370 14
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Laparoscopic view of surgical anatomy of the groin
Reinhard Bittner
April-June 2018, 1(1):24-31
DOI:10.4103/ijawhs.ijawhs_1_18  
BACKGROUND: Deep knowledge of anatomy is essential for the success of any surgical intervention. This is especially true for inguinal hernia repair, due to the complex anatomical structure of the groin. METHODS: Observation and documentation of the pathology of the groin in >15,000 laparoscopic inguinal hernia repairs and careful study of the literature describe the anatomy in cadaver preparation. RESULTS: The large variability of the course of the nerves and the utmost importance of the bilaminar structure of the transversalis fascia for a precise dissection of the pelvic floor as well as for the placement of a large flat mesh are described in detail. CONCLUSION: Competent knowledge of the anatomy of the groin facilitates the operative performance, enables a tissue-protective dissection, and may provide an uncomplicated postoperative course.
  17,668 1,849 2
Prevention of seroma formation after laparoscopic inguinoscrotal indirect hernia repair by a new surgical technique: A preliminary report
Junsheng Li, Zhenling Ji, Xiangyu Shao
July-September 2018, 1(2):55-59
DOI:10.4103/ijawhs.ijawhs_12_18  
BACKGROUND: Seroma formation is a frequent complication of laparoscopic inguinoscrotal hernia, and the most appropriate technique regarding the distal sac management in laparoscopic inguinoscrotal hernia is still debated. The aim of this study is to present a new technique to manage the large distal sac and to avoid the clinical significant seroma formation after laparoscopic inguinoscrotal hernia repair. MATERIALS AND METHODS: One hundred and ninety-five consecutive elective inguinal hernias were performed in our group in 1-year period and 12 of them were inguinoscrotal indirect hernias, defined as the hernia sac descending into the scrotum. In these inguinoscrotal hernia patients, the distal hernia sacs were transected and left in place without complete dissection out of scrotum and reduction. Then, the lower edge of the distal sac was fixed to the posterior abdominal wall cranial and lateral to the internal ring with barbed suture. The patients were prospectively followed with physical examination, and in five of them, ultrasound was performed on the 1st day and 7th day after the operation. The primary postoperative outcome parameter was seroma formation; the secondary parameters included groin pain, surgical complications, and early hernia recurrence. RESULTS: Only one patient developed clinical significant seroma by physical examination during the follow-up period. The patients complained no chronic groin pain, and there were no other surgical complications and early hernia recurrence in these series. CONCLUSION: Seroma formation could be effectively prevented by suspension of the lower edge of the distal sac to the posterior abdominal wall is an easy, reproducible, reliable, and cost-effective method to prevent postoperative clinical significant seroma formation after laparoscopic inguinoscrotal hernia repair. Although the early results were promising, the comparative studies and randomized controlled trials are necessary for further evaluation.
  13,528 1,313 15
REVIEW ARTICLES
Thromboembolic prophylaxis in hernia surgery
Henry Hoffmann, Ralph Fabian Staerkle, Philipp Kirchhoff
July-September 2018, 1(2):37-41
DOI:10.4103/ijawhs.ijawhs_14_18  
INTRODUCTION: Thromboembolic prophylaxis (TP) is an effective strategy to reduce the risk of thromboembolic events such as deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism. In the absence of patient- and procedure-related risk factors, the risk of thromboembolic events is considerably low among surgical patients. Since hernia repair is thought to be a low-risk procedure, the role of TP in patients undergoing hernia surgery is a matter of debate. METHODS: A systematic search of the literature was conducted in Medline/PubMed and the Cochrane database. Forty-eight relevant publications were identified. RESULTS: Overall, there is a paucity of studies specifically investigating the impact of TP in patients undergoing hernia surgery. Available studies demonstrate that the risk of thromboembolic events with TP in inguinal hernia repair is approximately 0.1%, comparable to other low-risk procedures. Lower rates of thromboembolic events are seen in outpatient surgery. Laparoscopy and implanted mesh in the groin do not increase the risk of thromboembolic events. CONCLUSION: Due to the limited data, no recommendation for or against TP in hernia surgery can be made. Further studies are urgently needed to investigate the effect of TP on the risk of thromboembolic events in patients undergoing hernia repair.
  13,311 882 2
Current state of repair of large hiatal hernia
David I Watson
April-June 2019, 2(2):39-43
DOI:10.4103/ijawhs.ijawhs_12_19  
Large hiatus hernias are encountered with increasing frequency in aging Western populations. If certain steps are followed, repair can be safely and reliably achieved using laparoscopic approaches. However, surgeons disagree about some key steps, including the use of mesh for repair of the hiatus, lengthening of the esophagus, and the addition of a fundoplication. A narrative review of literature pertinent to laparoscopic repair of large hiatus hernia was undertaken, with priority given to information available from randomized trials. All surgeons agree that the hiatal sac should be fully dissected from the chest to reduce the stomach, and the majority add a fundoplication of some sort. Opinions diverge significantly for the addition of a Collis procedure or the use of mesh. Evidence cited to support these opinions can be prioritized differently by different individuals, and the same evidence is often be cited to support either view. Nevertheless, randomized trials of mesh versus sutured hiatal repair have yielded divergent outcomes, with the more recent studies reporting longer term outcomes failing to support the use of mesh. Surgeons seeking “anatomical perfection” will often add a Collis procedure and are more likely to use mesh. However, the alternative view is that patient satisfaction with the clinical outcome should be prioritized. When this view is taken, a Collis procedure is rarely required. The author concludes that surgeons should aim to keep this operation simple, and an approach which prioritizes careful dissection to protect hiatal structures, followed by sutured repair will deliver a good clinical outcome for most patients.
  12,589 1,466 6
COMMENTARY
Outside of guidelines: Successful Desarda technique for primary inguinal hernias
Ralph Lorenz
January-March 2019, 2(1):23-24
DOI:10.4103/ijawhs.ijawhs_1_19  
  12,518 1,328 2
REVIEW ARTICLE
Inguinal neuroanatomy: Implications for prevention of chronic postinguinal hernia pain
Danielle S Graham, Ian T MacQueen, David C Chen
April-June 2018, 1(1):1-8
DOI:10.4103/ijawhs.ijawhs_6_18  
Inguinal hernia repairs represent one of the most common general surgery operations worldwide. Advances in the understanding of groin anatomy, operative technique, and prosthetics have improved the efficacy of these repairs with overall low recurrence rates and favorable outcomes. Chronic postherniorrhaphy inguinal pain has arguably become the most important and most frequent complication of inguinal hernia repair, with significant impact on patients' quality of life. Neuropathic inguinodynia may be caused by direct nerve injury, manipulation, entrapment, scarring, and interaction with mesh. Development of chronic postinguinal hernia repair pain is independent of the method of hernia repair as all inguinal hernia repair techniques may potentially cause injury. Understanding the neuroanatomy of the inguinal canal and the potential mechanisms for injury leads to lower rates of nerve injury and chronic pain and helps to guide prevention and treatment of inguinodynia. In this article, the neuroanatomy of the anterior inguinal canal and the prevention of nerve injury are addressed.
  12,534 1,080 1
REVIEW ARTICLES
Inguinal hernia repair in cirrhotic patients with ascites
Junsheng Li, Xiangyu Shao, Tao Cheng, Zhenling Ji
July-September 2020, 3(3):87-93
DOI:10.4103/ijawhs.ijawhs_11_20  
AIM: Cirrhotic patients with ascites have a high incidence of abdominal wall hernias and carry an elevated perioperative morbidity and mortality. The optimal surgical treatment as well as timing of inguinal hernia repair in this situation remains controversial. In the present study, we aim to address the safe and risk profile of inguinal hernia repair in cirrhotic patients with ascites. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Major databases (PubMed, Embase, Springer, and Cochrane Library) were searched, and all studies published through October 2019 were identified, using the keywords: “inguinal hernia,” “liver cirrhosis,” “ascites,” “hernia repair,” including various combinations of the terms, all relevant articles and reference lists in these original studies were also obtained from the above databases. RESULTS: Nine articles were identified on inguinal hernia repair in cirrhotic patients with ascites. Various anesthetic methods and repair techniques were used to repair inguinal hernia in this situation. The frequent postoperative complications were minor-wound complications, with an overall incidence of 15.4% in elective surgery, which could be managed with conservative treatment. While, emergent surgery was associated with increased wound complications. The recurrence rate was 2.0%, the average of postoperative 30-day mortality was 1.0%, and none of the death was attributable to the complications of inguinal hernia repair and their treatment. CONCLUSION: Elective inguinal hernia repair in cirrhotic ascites is safe and should be advocated. Emergent surgery is associated with increased wound complications. Although the data are insufficient to support a specific technique, mesh repair has advantages with regard to long-term recurrence rate.
  11,476 1,175 2
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
A single-blind, randomized controlled study to compare Desarda technique with Lichtenstein technique by evaluating short- and long-term outcomes after 3 years of follow-up in primary inguinal hernias
Hemanth Vupputuri, Satish Kumar R, Priya Subramani, Venugopal K
January-March 2019, 2(1):16-22
DOI:10.4103/ijawhs.ijawhs_21_18  
BACKGROUND: Lichtenstein tension-free repair is associated with postoperative complications and dysfunctions; hence, there is a need to look for a new hernia repair techniques while retaining its advantages. Desarda technique is a physiologic repair and essentially restores physiology of the inguinal canal. This single-blind, randomized controlled study was conducted to compare Desarda with Lichtenstein technique evaluating short- and long-term outcomes after 3 years of follow-up in primary inguinal hernias. MATERIALS AND METHODS: One hundred and twenty-three adult male patients with primary inguinal hernia (both direct and indirect) were randomly allocated intraoperatively to Lichtenstein repair, Mesh (M) Group or Desarda repair, nonmesh (NM) Group. Baseline characteristics were recorded before the surgery. Short- and long-term outcomes and patients responses on patient global impression of change (PGIC) and Prolo scale after surgery were recorded. RESULTS: Sixty-two patients were assigned to NM and 61 to M group. Surgery time was significantly higher for M group (P < 0.001). Postsurgical pain was significantly higher (P < 0.001) in M than NM group whereas complications were comparable. The total mean duration of follow-up for M was 35.2 months while for NM was 35.7 months. The recurrence rate was not significantly different; however, chronic groin pain was significantly higher in M compared to NM (P = 0.05). After surgery, PGIC score was consistently higher in NM group with better functionality in NM group. CONCLUSIONS: After 3 years of follow-up, Lichtenstein technique and Desarda technique results were similar. After considering the pros and cons of both the methods, a tailor-made approach is required while choosing a procedure for hernia repair.
  11,299 1,193 1
Laparoscopic transversus abdominis release for the treatment of complex ventral hernia
Li Binggen, Miao Jinchao, Shi Shange, Qin Changfu
October-December 2018, 1(3):87-93
DOI:10.4103/ijawhs.ijawhs_18_18  
BACKGROUND: Posterior component separation through transversus abdominis muscle release (TAR) is an increasingly accepted technique worldwide for complex ventral hernia repair. Recently, researchers have attempted to perform the TAR procedure using minimally invasive approaches. In this study, we present our experience of laparoscopic TAR (Lap-TAR). The procedure will be described in detail and its feasibility evaluated. PATIENTS AND METHODS: To learn and be proficient in the procedure through soft cadaver workshop practice, we accumulated the necessary knowledge and minimally invasive surgery skills for the Lap-TAR procedure. We selected an appropriate patient and performed a Lap-TAR operation to treat complex ventral hernia. RESULTS: The Lap-TAR operation was successfully performed in a 73-year-old female patient with a giant lower abdominal incisional hernia, without open conversion. The estimated blood loss was 60 mL and the operative time was 365 min. The postoperative pain was mild, and the visual analog pain scale score was 3 on postoperative day (POD) 2. The patient was discharged on POD 7. All subfascial drains were removed before patient discharge. On an initial follow-up period of 3 months, there was no evidence of wound complication, bulging, or hernia recurrence. CONCLUSIONS: The Lap-TAR operation is technically feasible with a deliberate preparation. It could be an alternative for complex abdominal wall reconstruction with the potential to reduce pain, facilitate recovery, and decrease the length of hospital stay of patients.
  10,487 1,116 1
Obesity as a risk factor for complications and recurrences after ventral hernia repair
Elena Pareja Nieto, Carme Balague Ponz, Sonia Fernández Ananin, Eulalia Ballester Vazquez
January-March 2020, 3(1):1-3
DOI:10.4103/ijawhs.ijawhs_35_19  
OBJECTIVES AND BACKGROUND: Ventral hernias are a frequent reason for surgical consultation, and its incidence is higher in the obese population. In this article, we analyze the relationship between obesity and abdominal wall pathology and its influence in surgical results. PROCEDURE: A literature search strategy was performed to analyze this relationship. RESULTS: Obesity is not only a risk factor for the appearance of abdominal wall hernias and incisional hernias but also for complications after ventral hernia repair. Obesity also increases the risk of incarceration and recurrence after repair. In these patients, the laparoscopic approach minimizes the risk and comorbidity generated by obesity in abdominal wall surgery obtaining better results. Joint surgery with laparoscopic bariatric surgery seems to be a feasible technique with lower recurrence rates in different studies. Despite these results, conclusive studies are still insufficient to make recommendation concerning hernia repair in patients undergoing bariatric surgery. CONCLUSIONS: There is a strong association between obesity and abdominal wall hernias, and the laparoscopic approach seems to offer better results regarding comorbidity of obesity.
  9,660 1,383 4
Laparoscopic round ligament preserving repair for groin hernia in women: A critical appraisal
V Abolmasov Alexey, Badma Bashankaev
October-December 2019, 2(4):130-133
DOI:10.4103/ijawhs.ijawhs_23_19  
BACKGROUND: Our objective was to investigate the clinical characteristics of original laparoscopic round ligament-sparing repair technique for groin hernias in female patients. METHODS: The clinical data of 48 female patients (58 hernias) who underwent laparoscopic transabdominal preperitoneal (TAPP) inguinal hernia repair using original split mesh technique at Orel Regional Hospital (Russia) between March 2009 and January 2019 were analyzed retrospectively. The aim of the study was to provide an overview about female groin hernias, preferred surgical approach, and the management of round ligament of uterus. RESULTS: There were 58 TAPP repairs in 48 patients. The average follow-up period was 43 months (min. – 3, max. – 122, Mo – 12, and Me – 43). Fifteen femoral hernias were noted in ten patients, of which two femoral hernias were incarcerated. Cysts on the round ligament of the uterus were found in four patients, and most of them underwent laparoscopic resection. Round ligaments of the uterus were preserved in all patients. An average operation time was 56 min (min. – 20, max. – 135, Mo – 40 min, and Me – 50 min). None of the cases was converted to laparotomy. All patients returned to normal activity soon and 1 (1.7%) recurrence was noted during follow-up. CONCLUSION: Laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair is well adopted around the world, but still questions remain which are related to female patients, especially regarding the function and preserving the round ligament. Based on this study, it is possible to preserve the round ligament by using the original laparoscopic TAPP keyhole technique.
  10,049 978 2
REVIEW ARTICLE
Tension measurements in abdominal wall hernia repair: Concept and clinical applications
Paul L Tenzel, Jordan A Bilezikian, Frederic E Eckhauser, William W Hope
October-December 2019, 2(4):119-124
DOI:10.4103/ijawhs.ijawhs_37_19  
Tension has always been and remains an important concept in hernia repair. Revolutionary techniques in the field of hernia repair have generally aimed to reduce tension and thereby reduce recurrence rates. Despite the uniformly agreed upon idea that tension is an important part of hernia repair, little is known about this subject in ventral and incisional hernias. We reviewed all published journal articles related to abdominal wall tension. Articles were organized into basic science and clinical reports, and results were evaluated for type and technique of tension measurement and implications for clinical practice. Several cadaveric and clinical studies relate to the measurement of abdominal wall tension. Despite similar methods of measuring, there is no uniformly agreed upon device or measurement. Abdominal wall tension has not been correlated with hernia width, and abdominal wall tension measurement has shown to be a useful adjunct intraoperatively. Abdominal wall tension measurements likely have a role in both the research and clinical practice of hernia surgery.
  8,191 1,130 3
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Surgery for incarcerated inguinal hernia: Outcomes with Lichtenstein versus open preperitoneal approach
Cuihong Jin, Yingmo Shen, Jie Chen, Fuqiang Chen, Min Liu, Fan Wang, Fenglin Zhao
April-June 2019, 2(2):44-49
DOI:10.4103/ijawhs.ijawhs_34_18  
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Incarcerated inguinal hernia comprises a significant portion of surgical emergencies, and represents about 5%–15% of all operated inguinal hernias. Tension-free repair with mesh placement is the preferred technique for elective surgery due to its low recurrence rate. However, limited information is available on the usage of synthetic mesh in the emergent treatment because of the potentially infected surgical fields, especially in case of concomitant bowel resection. The aims of this study were to evaluate the results of mesh-based emergency hernioplasty and compare the outcomes of incarcerated inguinal hernia repair with synthetic mesh in Lichtenstein or open preperitoneal approach and to identify the risk factors for postoperative complications. METHODS: A total of 151 patients with incarcerated inguinal hernia that underwent surgery between January 2013 and December 2017 were included in this retrospective study. Demographics, surgical details, and outcomes such as surgical-site infection and recurrence were collected. Univariate analysis was employed to identify risk factors for overall complications. RESULTS: A total of 61 patients received Lichtenstein hernial repair, whereas 90 patients received open preperitoneal repair. Overall morbidity occurred in 21 patients. There was no significant difference between the two groups in terms of postoperative complications. Univariate risk factors for overall complications were age >65 years, duration of incarceration ≥8 h, American Society of Anesthesiologists grade ≥III, cardiopathy, bronchial asthma, indirect inguinal hernia, and strangulation. In multivariate analysis, no risk factors were found associating with a higher rate of overall morbidity. CONCLUSION: As for incarcerated inguinal hernia, both Lichtenstein and open preperitoneal approach with mesh are safe and effective.
  8,549 724 2
Medico-legal implications in hernia surgery
Reinhard Bittner
July-September 2019, 2(3):105-113
DOI:10.4103/ijawhs.ijawhs_27_19  
AIM: Litigation is always a severe burden for every surgeon who is involved. The study aims to show the most important reasons for an allegation and how to prevent a lawsuit. METHODS: Based on the own experience as a medical advisor, ten medico-legal cases are analyzed and a systematic overview of the corresponding literature is given. RESULTS: Allegation for malpractice is not very frequent; in hernia surgery, <1% of the patients are involved. Furthermore, only in 20%–40% of these cases, the decision is in favor of the claimant. However, every case is associated with compensation ranging from roughly between $19,000 and $8,000,000. Totally the author had to perform 10 reports in legal cases for the court: In three cases, compensation had been refused, because informed consent had correctly been done, and the operative situs was clearly documented, and in the third case, the preoperative diagnostics and the operative performance had been according to the medical standard. The claim was successful in three patients because of technical failure, in two cases because of wrong indication, and in two cases because of delayed reoperation. DISCUSSION: There are five key features in the prevention of a lawsuit in surgery: (1) “informed consent:” Take the time, use a standard form, show pictures and make handwritten notes to explain in detail the indication for surgery, the technical performance of the planned intervention, and the steps of aftercare; (2) “technical performance” of the operation should follow the generally accepted medical standard. Deep knowledge of anatomy is an indispensable precondition of perfect operation; (3) a “delay in timely response” to a complication is not excusable; (4) “careful documentation” of all steps of the treatment may possibly avoid a legal case; and (5) “establishing an empathic relationship” between the surgeon and the patient and his/her relatives as well is essential for avoiding an accusation. CONCLUSION: Medico-legal implications in hernia surgery are rare, but a severe burden for every surgeon concerned and may be associated with damage to the reputation of the surgeon and high costs. The best ways of preventing such a disaster are the correct indications and operative performance according to the current medical standard and empathic aftercare.
  8,260 924 4
Antibiotic prophylaxis in laparoendoscopic hernia surgery
Ferdinand Kockerling
April-June 2018, 1(1):9-12
DOI:10.4103/ijawhs.ijawhs_4_18  
INTRODUCTION: Whether antibiotic prophylaxis can really reduce the rate of surgical site infections (SSIs) or rather tends to increase the risk of antimicrobial resistance development is being increasingly questioned even for elective surgery in a clean surgical field. Since compared with the open technique, the laparoendoscopic technique per se reduces the SSI rate, that possibility must also be considered for laparoendoscopic repair of inguinal and abdominal wall hernias despite these techniques always using a mesh as a foreign body. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A systematic search of the literature was conducted in Medline/PubMed and the Cochrane database. Thirty-two relevant publications were identified. RESULTS: Overall, there is a paucity of studies on antibiotic prophylaxis in laparoendoscopic hernia surgery. Those studies available are not able to demonstrate that the use of antibiotic prophylaxis in laparoendoscopic repair of inguinal and abdominal wall hernias has a definite effect on the SSI rate. Hence, antibiotic prophylaxis can be omitted with for patients with no risk factors. But that does not apply for patients with risk factors, such as obesity, diabetes mellitus, emergency surgery, contaminated surgical field, recurrent hernia, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, abdominal aortic aneurysm, prior SSI, long operative time, and other factors influencing the SSI rate. CONCLUSION: Further studies are urgently needed on antibiotic prophylaxis in laparoendoscopic hernia surgery in particular in association with risk factors.
  8,341 759 4
EDITORIAL
Guidelines in hernia surgery – friend or foe
M Pawlak, B East, H Gok, AC de Beaux
July-September 2019, 2(3):75-77
DOI:10.4103/ijawhs.ijawhs_28_19  
  7,456 962 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Incisional hernia formation can be reduced following hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy with increased suture length to wound length ratio fascial closure
Joseph A Lewcun, Eric M Pauli, Colette Pameijer
October-December 2020, 3(4):117-121
DOI:10.4103/ijawhs.ijawhs_30_20  
INTRODUCTION: Incisional hernia (IH) is a common postsurgical complication of laparotomy. The impact of hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy on fascial healing has not been evaluated. The aim of this study is to determine whether utilizing a 4:1 suture length to wound length ratio (SL:WL) during fascial closure reduces the risk of IH following cytoreductive surgery and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (CS-HIPEC). METHODS: A retrospective review of patients who underwent HIPEC between 2013 and 2019 at a single institution was performed. Demographics and IH rates were compared between patients closed with a 4:1 SL:WL and patients with standard fascial closure (SFC). Hernias were detected on physical examination or on cross-sectional imaging studies. RESULTS: Eighty-six patients who underwent HIPEC were included in the study. A 4:1 SL:WL was utilized in 26.7% (n = 23) of HIPEC cases and the remaining 73.3% (n = 63) of patients received SFC methods. Three patients in the 4:1 SL:WL group developed hernias, whereas 22 patients in the SFC group had hernias (13.0% vs. 34.9%, P = 0.048). The incidence of IHs was similar across the body mass index, smoking status, and operative time categories. CONCLUSION: Utilizing a 4:1 SL:WL during fascial closure may reduce the rates of IH in the HIPEC population, but larger sample sizes and longer follow-up are required to determine the statistical significance of this intervention.
  7,431 927 1
REVIEW ARTICLES
Comparison between transversus abdominis release and anterior component separation technique in complex ventral hernia
Md Yusuf Afaque, Amjad Ali Rizvi
July-September 2020, 3(3):81-86
DOI:10.4103/ijawhs.ijawhs_55_19  
INTRODUCTION: Transversus abdominis release (TAR) is the new revolution in hernia surgery and hernia surgeons are passionately doing it all over the world. With the increase in the popularity of TAR technique, there seems a decrease in anterior component separation technique (ACST) popularity. ACST despite gone modification such as endoscopic and perforator preserving method is seen as an inferior procedure to TAR. Is TAR better than ACST? What are its theoretical limitations? We have done a literature review to compare the postoperative outcomes and technicality of open ACST and open TAR procedure. METHODS: We performed a search in the database of PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane library for articles that have compared ACST with TAR procedure for postoperative outcomes and technical superiority. The search was limited to human studies and in the English language with cadaveric studies included. RESULTS: We found seven studies that have compared ACST and TAR for various outcomes. They are three systemic reviews with meta-analysis, one multicentric prospective randomized controlled trial, one prospective study, and two cadaveric studies. They have compared the surgical site infection and surgical site occurrence rates, recurrence rate, quality of life (QOL), and extent of mobilization of the rectus muscle. Most of the studies found no significant difference between ACST and TAR; however, the overall quality of the studies may be limited. CONCLUSION: Open ACST is comparable to open TAR procedure and has equally acceptable outcomes. In ACST, it seems to be essential to preserve the perforator vessels; however, altogether further studies are needed to gain more clarity in the daily decision-making process in the repair of complex ventral hernias.
  7,067 812 1
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Adjuvant botulinum toxin for endoscopic management (preaponeurotic endoscopic repair) of severe diastasis recti
Derlin Marcio Juarez Muas, Ezequiel Mariano Palmisano, Guillermo Pou Santoja, Olga Rosa Mustone Paz
April-June 2021, 4(2):45-50
DOI:10.4103/ijawhs.ijawhs_49_20  
INTRODUCTION: Diastasis recti (DR) associated with midline hernias is common. Big size DR represents a clinical and cosmetic problem. Its repair is challenging, with intraoperative and postoperative risks. The adjuvant of botulinum toxin serotype A makes it possible to restoration of the linea alba by preaponeurotic endoscopic repair (REPA). METHODS: This was a retrospective study with prospective database. Between February 2019 and July 2020, six women were operated, with a mean age of 39 years and a diagnosis of DR >80 mm, with a body mass index of 27. All patients were infiltrated with 50 UR of botulinum toxin serotype A on each side, 30 days before the surgery. RESULTS: The intraoperative diagnosis of DR was 87.5 mm average, associated with midline hernias in 100%, with a mean transverse diameter of 24 mm (10–60 mm) Anatomical restoration of the linea alba was performed with a slow absorbable barbed suture. The wall was reinforced with 100% macroporous polypropylene mesh, with 83.3% atraumatic fixation and 16.6% absorbable traumatic fixation. The surgical time was 94 ± 15 min. Postoperative pain was 2/10 ± 1 according to the Visual Analog Scale, allowing a hospital stay of 18 ± 4 h. Return to work 18 ± 3 days. The mean follow-up was 9 (2–18) months by the clinical and ultrasound examination in 100%, without complications or recurrences. CONCLUSIONS: The application of botulinum toxin serotype A associated with endoscopic repair (REPA) allowed solving the big size DR and midline hernias with suture of the rectus sheath with less tension, associated with a reinforcement prosthesis, allowing a reduced hospitalization with a low level of postoperative pain, avoiding muscle release incisions, which are irreversible and not exempt from morbidity, added to the proven benefits of endoscopic access.
  7,112 690 -
REVIEW ARTICLE
A case for open inguinal hernia repair
John Morrison
October-December 2018, 1(3):69-73
DOI:10.4103/ijawhs.ijawhs_17_18  
The open approach to inguinal hernia repair has several distinct advantages in the management of both primary and recurrent groin hernia repairs. A variety of repair techniques are available to suite the patient's condition. Both pure tissue and mesh techniques in a tailored fashion may be employed, rather than the cookie-cutter approach where the mesh is used in the same fashion in every case. Most patients with preexisting comorbidities may have repair carried out under local or regional anesthesia instead of general anesthesia as required by laparoscopy. Studies have demonstrated the efficacy of open preperitoneal mesh placement in the treatment of recurrent inguinal and femoral hernia repair, where hernia recurrence rates, postoperative complications, and long-term patient outcomes are equivalent to laparoscopic repair. The use of robots has yet to demonstrate any advantage over manual repairs either open or laparoscopic, with extended operating time and extreme cost. Return to normal daily activity is advocated in 3–7 days whichever technique is used.
  6,762 682 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Sports rehabilitation after laparoscopic hernioplasty
Osvaldo Santilli, Hernan Santilli, Nicolas Nardelli, Daniel Tripoloni, Hernan Etchepare
October-December 2020, 3(4):122-127
DOI:10.4103/ijawhs.ijawhs_28_20  
INTRODUCTION: The development of minimally invasive procedures and analgesic drug evolution has contributed to reduce the rest period after inguinal hernia repair; nevertheless, there is still no scientific evidence to establish optimal postsurgery rest time and sequence for resuming activity until reaching full performance. Early and controlled rehabilitation by physical therapists has proven beneficial in postsurgery for athlete groups, although no publications are available on experiences in nonathlete patients. OBJETIVE: The aim was to analyze the results of a rehabilitation program applied to post-transabdominal preperitoneal (TAPP) hernioplasty in non-athletic patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The first 1,000 nonathlete patients who performed the postoperative sports rehabilitation plan from January 2012 to December 2016. We used TAPP laparoscopic hernioplasty. Postsurgery exercise program guided by objectives and supervised by physical therapists in four growing-intensity phases. Postsurgery complications, hernia recurrence, pain intensity (numeric scale) while exercising at 2 and 10 days after surgery; start time and duration for the first phase in the rehabilitation plan; and timing of return to work were evaluated. RESULTS: The objectives of the first phase were reached by 92% of the patients on the 7th day. Work activities started in 97% of the patients before the 5th day. CONCLUSIONS: Application of a sports rehabilitation program does not increase the recurrence rate nor complications and may speed up the return to full physical activity in nonathletic patients.
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Fundamentals of incisional hernia prevention
Samuel A Heathcote, Zachary F Williams, W Borden Hooks, William W Hope
April-June 2018, 1(1):32-36
DOI:10.4103/ijawhs.ijawhs_3_18  
BACKGROUND: The incidence of incisional hernia following surgery is a major economical and clinical burden for healthcare. METHODS: This report reviews and consolidates pertinent literature related to hernia prevention to give surgeons a solid framework on the current perspectives and emerging topics related to incisional hernia prevention. RESULTS: Pertinent anatomy and fundamentals of laparotomy closures are reviewed. Recommended closures of laparotomy incisions include the use of monofilament, slowly absorbing suture in a running fashion with a 4:1 suture to wound length ratio using a short stitch technique. The use of prophylactic mesh reduces the rate of incisional and parastomal hernias in high-risk patients. CONCLUSION: The current fundamentals of hernia prevention including pertinent anatomy and surgical techniques for appropriate laparotomy closures should be known to surgeons operating on the abdominal wall. The use of prophylactic mesh to reduce incisional and parastomal hernias has shown promise, and further research is needed to evaluate long-term efficacy.
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Comparison of intraperitoneal ventralex ST patch versus onlay mesh repair in small and medium primer umbilical hernia
Birol Agca, Yalin Iscan
January-March 2019, 2(1):1-6
DOI:10.4103/ijawhs.ijawhs_24_18  
PURPOSE: Although the size of the hernia plays an active role in the use of the mesh, the counter-view is that the use of the mesh should be preferred regardless of the size of the hernia. In our study, the clinical results of two different mesh types applied under elective conditions to small-and medium-sized umbilical hernia cases were examined. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Between January 2015 and May 2018, intraperitoneal Ventralex ST repair and onlayprolene mesh repair were performed in 88 primary small and medium umbilical hernia cases. Demographic data, duration of surgery, length of hospital stay postoperative complications, and recurrence were recorded. RESULTS: Eighty-eight patients were analyzed including 54 males and 34 females – a mean age of 50.3 years. The duration of the surgery in Ventralex ST group was 35.9 ± 4.1 min. (P < 0.05). Comparing to the visual analog scale (VAS) values of the 1st day, the decrease in VAS values in both groups on the 7th day was statistically significant (P < 0.05). The rates of early and late postoperative complications, such as seroma, hematoma, wound infection, and recurrence, were similar between the procedures. The mean follow-up period was 23 months (with range 7–46 months), and no recurrence was observed in both groups. CONCLUSION: We think that the Ventralex ST mesh performed with open surgical technique under elective conditions for primitive umbilical hernias can be safely used because of its quick applicability and low rates of complication and recurrence.
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