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   Table of Contents - Current issue
January-March 2022
Volume 5 | Issue 1
Page Nos. 1-52

Online since Wednesday, February 23, 2022

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Expanding your surgical tools for large ventral and incisonal hernias p. 1
Frederik Berrevoet
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The open anterior component separation technique for large ventral and incisional abdominal wall reconstruction p. 2
Frederik Berrevoet, Mathias Allaeys
Large defects in the abdominal wall have been a challenge for traditional surgical techniques. Over several decades, the development of what is now known as the anterior component separation technique (CST) has evolved to reduce tension through release of the lateral abdominal wall muscles. Initially, Albanese and later Ramirez described and popularized this technique.In this procedure, the space between the external oblique muscle and the internal oblique muscle is dissected immediately lateral to the rectus compartment, that is, at the level of the linea semilunaris. To reach this area, an extensive dissection of the subcutaneous tissue and bilateral dissection of the aponeurosis of the external oblique muscle is mandatory in an open standard approach. Unfortunately, this extensive dissection comes at the cost of higher wound morbidity rates.Herein, the surgical technique, the indications as well as the complications will be discussed and a short overview of the results of the latest systematic reviews will be presented, comparing the anterior CST with other surgical options to achieve fascial closure in large abdominal wall defects.
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Endoscopic anterior component separation: How we do it? p. 8
Lars N Jørgensen, Kristian Kiim Jensen
The repair of large incisional hernia is challenging and has evolved at a high pace in recent decades, since Ramirez described the open anterior component separation, dividing the external oblique aponeurosis. Endoscopic anterior component separation is a minimally invasive approach to this technique, which also serves as an adjunct to open repair of large incisional hernia. Popularized by Michael Rosen’s group in 2007, this technique has become one of the many important tools every abdominal wall surgeon should master. In the current paper, we review the technique, from preoperative considerations and patient placement to specific technical details, and discuss pitfalls and potential limitations.
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eCST: The endoscopic-assisted component separation technique for (complex) abdominal wall reconstruction Highly accessed article p. 13
Tammo Sasker de Vries Reilingh, Simon W Nienhuijs, Dite L C de Jong, Elwin H H Mommers, Johannes A Wegdam
INTRODUCTION: In 1990, Ramirez introduced his component separation technique (CST) based on enlargement of the abdominal wall for reconstruction of large abdominal wall defects. CST is prone to postoperative wound complications which lead to modification of the technique to an endoscopic assisted CST. The details of the technique are described in detail with illustrations and report the results of a 36 patient cohort. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between 2014 and 2018, patients with midline hernias without previous subcutaneous dissection underwent endoscopic-assisted anterior components separation technique (eCST) with retro-rectus mesh enforcement in an expert center for abdominal wall reconstructions. Prospective data were gathered during inpatient care and at least 2 years of follow-up. RESULTS: A total of 36 eCST procedures were performed. Eight patients (22%) had postoperative seroma in the dissection plan between external and internal rectus muscle, 3 (8%) had a hematoma, 1 (3%) had wound dehiscence. Clinical relevant SSEs were present in 4 patients (11%) and consisted of 3 (8%) puncture in seroma, 1 (3%) patient needed a blood transfusion due to large hematoma. One patient was re-operated within 90 days; however, this was the placement of a surgical tracheostomy. Three patients had a recurrence in a mean follow-up length of 24 months. CONCLUSION: eCST can be useful in selected patients.
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The open perforator sparing anterior component separation p. 21
Maleeha Mughal, Daniel Ross, David Ross
Hernia surgery, and intra-abdominal surgery in general, have been accompanied by an increased risk of complications, largely due to a combination of operative complexity and obesity. Advances in care following major abdominal trauma, infections and complex abdominal procedures has led to the advent of several techniques that can allow dependable closure of these wider, more difficult defects. Anterior component separation (ACS) is a well-established technique used to achieve fascial closure in complex abdominal wall reconstruction (AWR). Wound related complications in the traditional ACS procedure have been reported to occur in 24%-50% of cases. In a quest to reduce complications and improve wound healing rates, methods have evolved in order to limit the anatomical injury caused by lateral elevation of flaps in the conventional techniques. These techniques involve preservation of the abdominal wall perforators. Thus ensuring appropriate perfusion of the overlying skin flaps. Perforator-sparing techniques have become increasingly important as they reflect greater understanding of how pre-operative planning can aid reduction of surgical risk, wound infection and improve wound healing in patients with complex abdominal wall hernias.
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Open transversus abdominis release Highly accessed article p. 26
Kelly Tunder, Yuri Novitsky
The management of most complex abdominal wall hernias remains a significant challenge and the approaches to repair them have evolved. To address these challenges, the posterior component separation using the transversus abdominis muscle release (TAR) was developed. Through cadaveric research and better understanding of the anatomy of the transversus abdominis muscle, the first TAR transversus abdominis release was performed in 2006. In the numerous studies performed since, TAR continues to show low recurrence rates, limited significant wound morbidity, rare mesh complications, and low incidence of mesh explantation. The TAR approach has now been definitively proven to be a valuable technique for abdominal wall reconstruction and can address a wide variety of defects. Moreover, a proper performed TAR has been shown to have no deleterious effects on the abdominal trunk musculature and trunk/core function. A deep understanding of the anatomy, preoperative optimization and precise surgical technique is imperative to performing a TAR and ensuring the best outcome for the patient.
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Chemical abdominal wall release using botulinum toxin A: A personal view Highly accessed article p. 30
Henry Hoffmann, Debora Nowakowski, Philipp Kirchhoff
Introduction: Botulinum Toxin A (BTA) has gained increasing interest in hernia surgery, especially when dealing with complex ventral hernias. The goal of using BTA is the preoperative reduction of the transverse hernia diameter achieving a higher primary fascial closure rate, avoiding a potential additional component separation. However, high evidence data are sparse and the treatment protocols of BTA and patient selection are heterogenic. In this article, we review the most recent literature; discuss indications for BTA, the ideal patient selection, and available BTA protocols. Also, we provide our own data and discuss the potential future role of BTA in treating complex ventral hernias. Materials and Methods: We reviewed the available literature and analyzed our own data from patients with complex ventral hernias undergoing preoperative BTA application retrospectively. We present our BTA protocol and measured abdominal wall muscle and hernia parameters before BTA application and before surgery using CT scans. Results: In total 22 patients with a median diameter of the incisional hernias of 11.75 cm (IQR 10.9–13.4) were included in our study. BTA administration was performed 4 weeks prior to surgery. In CT scans a significant reduction of the thickness and an elongation of the lateral abdominal wall muscle compartment were seen in all patients. Also, the transverse hernia diameter decreased in all cases from median 11.8 cm (IQR 10.9–13.4) pre-BTA to 9.1 cm (IQR 7.6–10.2) presurgery. Primary fascial closure was achieved in all cases with additional component separation in three cases. Conclusion: BTA administration in the lateral abdominal wall muscle compartment is a helpful tool to simplify surgery of complex ventral hernias. It has a visible effect on the muscle parameters in the CT scans and subsequently may increase the rate of primary fascial closure. Further multicenter studies are necessary to gain data with higher evidence.
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Progressive pneumoperitoneum: Where do we stand in 2021? p. 36
Mathias Allaeys, Gabrielle H van Ramshorst, Frederik Berrevoet
Progressive pneumoperitoneum (PPP) is a technique in which the abdomen is artificially and gradually insufflated over a period of time. The technique was first applied in hernia repair in the 1940s and is now regarded as a useful adjunct in the treatment of complex or giant hernias and those associated with “loss of domain” (LOD). With gradual insufflation, the abdomen becomes progressively distended, promoting soft tissue elongation and preparing it for the post-repair surplus volume of the herniated content. PPP also helps with preoperative pulmonary stabilization and preparation, and it induces pneumatic lysis of intestinal adhesions. In contrast to the longevity of the technique, the heterogeneity in indications and technical variations is remarkable. Indications vary greatly in literature, being either based on clinical judgment or different volumetric cut-off values. Neither is there any consensus on which gas should be used, what volume should be injected, in what frequency, and for how long the pneumoperitoneum should be maintained. There is a clear need for an international consensus concerning LOD hernias and how they are defined. As setting up randomized controlled trials on PPP is not feasible, further research should rely on high-quality observational studies. For reviews and meta-analysis to have any meaningful conclusions, these studies should follow, and adhere to, clear guidelines on the manner of reporting. However, PPP remains a very powerful adjunct in the treatment of large and complex hernias with LOD and has proven its value over time.
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Is the dissection of the abdominal wall still necessary in the treatment of W3 hernias? p. 42
Henning C Niebuhr, Halil Dag, Zaid Malaibari, Ferdinand Köckerling, Wolfgang Reinpold, Marius Helmedag
Large incisional hernias are a permanent problem for surgeons in a growing number of operations. For the treatment of complex hernias, there are no internationally accepted evidence-based recommendations regarding the restoration of abdominal wall integrity. In this paper, we are reviewing the development of different component separations (CS) and other techniques used in treating such conditions. A literature review was carried out to describe some important techniques to treat giant hernias. After a detailed description of the CS and its important modifications, we are describing and discussing the relatively new fascial traction technique with its modification. With these reviews of the mentioned studies, we are questioning the extent to which the CS is still indicated in treating giant hernias and point out the importance of further comparison studies evaluating different techniques.
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Erratum: Retrospective research on initiative content reduction technique for obesity patients with huge abdominal incisional hernia p. 48

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Erratum: Surgery of abdominal wall hernias in Russia with special reference to new technical developments p. 49

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Erratum: Prevention of seroma formation after laparoscopic inguinoscrotal indirect hernia repair by a new surgical technique: A preliminary report p. 50

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Erratum: Laparoscopic transversus abdominis release for the treatment of complex ventral hernia p. 51

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Erratum: Laparoscopic round ligament preserving repair for groin hernia in women: A critical appraisal p. 52

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