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Year : 2022  |  Volume : 5  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 192-199

Evaluation of diaphragmatic omental hernias by radiology: A prevalence study

1 Department of Radiology, Visart Medical Imaging Institution, Ankara, Turkey
2 Department of Anatomy, Ankara Medipol University Faculty of Medicine, Ankara, Turkey
3 Department of Radiology, Ankara Bayindir Private Hospital, Ankara, Turkey; Department of Radiology Vocational School of Health Services, Atilim University, Ankara, Turkey

Correspondence Address:
Fatih Cankal
Faculty of Medicine, Department of Anatomy, Ankara Medipol University, Hacı Bayram Mah. Talatpaşa Bulvarı No: 4/1, Altındağ, Ankara
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/ijawhs.ijawhs_44_22

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INTRODUCTION: This study aimed to describe the radiological features of omental hernias originating from the diaphragm and their localization on the diaphragm, examine their relationship with the thoracic and abdominal organs, and present guiding data to clinicians in operational planning. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study was obtained as a result of retrospective scanning of the images of 824 patients aged 18–65 who applied for thorax and/or upper abdomen computerized tomography (CT). The patients’ thorax and upper abdomen regions were examined in detail and divided into two groups of individuals with and without hernias. Hernia types, content, localization, and effect types of patients with hernia were recorded and analyzed separately. RESULTS: Diaphragmatic hernia was detected in 197 (23.9%) of 824 patients. While 50.8% of these patients were female, 49.2% were male. Of the patients diagnosed with diaphragmatic hernia, 49.2% (n = 97) had Morgagni hernia, 30.5% (n = 60) had Bochdalek hernia, and 17.8% had hiatal hernia. While Morgagni hernia had anterior localization in 82.5%, Bochdalek hernia was generally localized on the left side (75.8%), and hiatal hernias were sliding type with a rate of 84.2%. The highest effect was observed in Bochdalek hernias (71.1%). Omental tissue (59.4%) was observed most frequently in Morgagni hernias, while stomach content (91.9%) was found to be the highest in hiatal hernias (P < 0.05). DISCUSSION–CONCLUSION: Diaphragmatic omental hernias are rare. The rarity, as well as the uncertain and nonspecific presentations, contributes to the retard in diagnosis. Commonly, the presentation in the adult age group is that of recurrent chest infection and rarely with gastroesophageal reflux and esophagitis. Physicians caring for these patients should be aware of this, and a high index of suspicion is recommended to obviate delay in diagnosis with its associated morbidity. We think the radiological features of diaphragmatic hernias should be detailed in determining and applying the optimal treatment approach. In addition, contrary to what was thought, we found that the prevalence of diaphragmatic hernia in our population is higher than that reported in the literature.

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